Sensory Processing Disorder and ADHD: A Comparative Study

A young boy with ADHD is holding a flower in his mouth.

Key Takeaways:

  • Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are distinct but often co-occurring conditions that require a comparative study for a better understanding.
  • SPD and ADHD share similar symptoms and diagnostic challenges, leading to mislabeling and misdiagnosis in some cases.
  • Treatment approaches for SPD and ADHD differ, so it is essential to accurately differentiate between the two for appropriate care and treatment.

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and ADHD are both neurodevelopmental disorders that impact daily functioning. In this section, we will explore the background and significance of comparing SPD and ADHD. Delving into the similarities and differences between these conditions can provide valuable insights into diagnosis, treatment, and improving the lives of individuals affected by these disorders.

Background of Sensory Processing Disorder and ADHD

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are two neurodevelopmental disorders that commonly occur together in children. SPD is marked by difficulties responding to sensory stimuli. While ADHD is known for inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Knowing more about these disorders is essential for proper diagnosis and successful treatment.

The symptoms of SPD and ADHD can overlap, making it hard to differentiate between them. A comparative study is helpful to determine the difference between the two and make sure treatment is appropriate.

SPD is estimated to appear in 5-16% of children. Boys and girls are equally likely to be affected. The cause of SPD is unknown, but studies suggest it may be linked to unusual brain activity or structure.

ADHD is a very common childhood disorder, with 3-7% of the global population affected. It is more often diagnosed in boys. The causes are multifactorial, including genes, brain structure, environment, and prenatal exposure.

Due to similar symptoms, it can be difficult to recognize the difference between SPD and ADHD. However, understanding more about them can help health professionals to make an accurate diagnosis and provide suitable treatment. Sensory processing therapy is used for SPD, while medicines and behavioral management are common treatments for ADHD.

Research has shown a connection between speech and language problems and sensory processing difficulties. Comparative studies have also contributed to the criteria used to diagnose SPD.

In summary, healthcare professionals play an important role in correctly diagnosing and treating children with both SPD and ADHD. Knowing the difference between the two is important in providing the best care for each individual.

Importance of Comparative Study between SPD and ADHD

The importance of comparing SPD and ADHD cannot be stressed enough. Such studies help healthcare professionals better diagnose and treat individuals.

SPD and ADHD share many symptoms, making it difficult to differentiate between them. So, a comprehensive analysis is essential to identify each disorder’s unique traits. This knowledge stops mislabeling and lets patients get the right care.

Treating SPD and ADHD requires different approaches. Medication and behavioral management are usually used for ADHD, while sensory processing therapy is for SPD. When both conditions occur together, a team approach may be necessary due to the huge impact on an individual’s life.

Comparing sensory profiles and diagnostic criteria deepens our understanding of SPD and ADHD. Moreover, exploring the link between speech and language disorders and sensory processing issues can give us more insight into these conditions’ complexities.

Understanding Sensory Processing Disorder

Understanding Sensory Processing Disorder: Delve into the definition, symptoms, prevalence in children, and causes with associated brain abnormalities.

Definition and Symptoms of SPD

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is a condition that affects how individuals process and respond to sensory information from their surroundings. It may cause difficulty in responding to sensations such as touch, sound, taste, smell, and vision.

Common signs of SPD are:

  • Sensory seeking or avoiding behaviors.
  • Over or under-reactivity to sensations.
  • Issues with transitions.
  • Poor motor coordination.
  • Sensitivity to certain textures or sounds.

Every person experiences SPD differently. Symptoms range from mild to severe. Assessing an individual’s sensory processing abilities can help identify suitable interventions and accommodations. Knowing the definition and symptoms of SPD is essential for accurate diagnosis and providing proper care.

Prevalence of SPD in Children

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) affects the way the brain processes sensory information. The prevalence of SPD in children is important, as it helps healthcare professionals provide appropriate care.

Studies show that SPD is common in children. The prevalence ranges from 5% to 16% in the general population.

Recognizing and addressing sensory processing difficulties at an early stage is key. This helps minimize the impact on a child’s development and overall well-being.

Identifying the prevalence of SPD in children enables better allocation of resources and support services. This allows healthcare providers to plan and deliver comprehensive care that caters to the needs of individuals with sensory processing difficulties.

Our comparative study shows that the causes and associated brain abnormalities of SPD are no match for our understanding.

Causes and Associated Brain Abnormalities of SPD

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is a condition with difficulties in processing sensory information. Causes and brain abnormalities remain unclear. Yet, research suggests various elements like genetics, prenatal/perinatal factors, and environment can play a part. Studies show differences in brain structure and function in SPD individuals. Neurological pathways may also be impacted. Further research needs to be done to understand causes and brain abnormalities. Also, to improve diagnosis and treatment strategies for people with SPD.

ADHD: Sitting still is harder than finding a needle in a haystack. Focusing is like herding cats!

Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is crucial in recognizing its impact. This section delves into the definition and symptoms of ADHD, explores the prevalence of ADHD in children, and examines the causes and associated brain abnormalities of the disorder. Unveiling these insights sheds light on the complexities of ADHD, allowing us to gain a deeper understanding of its effects on individuals.

Definition and Symptoms of ADHD

ADHD, also known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is when certain behaviors are disruptive to daily life. Signs of this include: trouble focusing, forgetfulness, difficulty organizing activities, talking too much, fidgeting, restlessness, and interrupting others. It’s a neurological issue that affects both kids and adults. Research shows it’s caused by genetics and environment factors that affect brain development and neuron regulation.

People with ADHD have difficulty with school and socializing. They may be inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive. Boys may be more hyperactive, while girls may be more internally focused (daydreaming and worrying).

It’s important to diagnose the disorder correctly. Healthcare pros assess symptoms at home and school, and how much they impact daily life. This helps them differentiate between ADHD, anxiety, and learning disabilities. Diagnosis results in the right intervention tailored to each individual.

Research helps us better understand ADHD. We’re refining criteria for subtypes, using brain imaging to explore neural mechanisms, and improving early identifications and treatments. By expanding our knowledge, we can better support those with the disorder.

Prevalence of ADHD in Children

The prevalence of ADHD in kids is how many or what percentage of them have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This is a key point when analyzing and understanding ADHD.

ADHD is a brain-based disorder that affects children and can last into adulthood. Its symptoms include trouble focusing, overactivity, and impulsivity. Data shows ADHD is common in children.

Studies suggest 5-7% of kids around the world are diagnosed with ADHD. This data indicates the high prevalence of this disorder in childhood. It’s important for healthcare professionals, parents, and educators to be aware of the prevalence of ADHD to help kids with the disorder.

Also, prevalence rates may differ in various regions and cultures. Factors like socio-economic status, access to healthcare, and cultural beliefs can affect the identification and reporting of ADHD cases in particular groups.

Due to the widespread incidence of ADHD in children globally, healthcare professionals must be knowledgeable about it. With the right understanding and recognition, early diagnosis and treatment can happen, leading to better outcomes for children with ADHD. Parental education, behavior management, medication if necessary, and supportive classrooms may help manage ADHD symptoms properly.

Causes and Associated Brain Abnormalities of ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It has symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. What causes this disorder and its brain abnormalities?

Research suggests that genetics are involved. Twin and family studies show a higher concordance rate of ADHD in identical twins, compared to fraternal twins. Genes related to neurotransmitter regulation, dopamine signaling, and executive functioning have been linked to the development of ADHD.

Besides genetics, environmental factors can affect ADHD too. Prenatal exposure to things like tobacco smoke, alcohol, and drugs increase the risk of developing ADHD. Low birth weight and premature birth can be risk factors too.

Brain imaging studies have revealed neurobiological abnormalities associated with ADHD. Structural abnormalities, such as reduced brain volume in attention and impulse control regions, have been seen in people with ADHD. Functional differences, like abnormal activation patterns and connectivity in brain networks for attentional processes, have been observed too.

In summary, ADHD is complex. Its causes and associated brain abnormalities involve genetic, environmental, and neurobiological influences.

Comparative Analysis of Symptoms and Diagnosis

Comparing the symptoms and diagnosis of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), this section explores the similarities and overlapping symptoms between these two conditions. It also delves into the challenges faced in accurately diagnosing and potential mislabeling. Additionally, differentiation strategies and observations will be examined to help shed light on distinguishing between SPD and ADHD.

Similarities and Overlapping Symptoms between SPD and ADHD

Misdiagnosing conditions like Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be as vexing as looking for a parking spot in a jam-packed mall during the holidays.

Comparing the two is complex due to similar and overlapping symptoms.

Both SPD and ADHD feature attention difficulties, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and sensory sensitivities. For more information, you can read the Sensory Processing Disorder and ADHD: A Comparative Study.

But, hyperactivity is less frequent in SPD, while ADHD generally produces heightened responses to sensory stimuli.

These subtleties are essential for accurate diagnosis and successful treatment approaches for people with both SPD and ADHD.

Research on children with speech/language issues linked sensory processing issues often seen in SPD to those impairments.

This indicates that understanding the relationship between sensory processing and communication troubles is key for providing comprehensive care for individuals with SPD and ADHD.

Challenges in Accurate Diagnosis and Mislabeling

Misdiagnosis and incorrect labeling present big obstacles to recognizing and understanding Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

The related signs of these two problems usually lead to confusion in diagnosis, resulting in improper or late treatment.

Also, the complex character of both SPD and ADHD makes it hard to tell them apart. Symptoms such as trouble holding attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and sensory sensitivities can be present in both issues. This mixture makes a diagnostic challenge for health professionals looking to give accurate assessments.

Moreover, misidentifying a person with one condition as having the other can have bad effects on their care and treatment. When someone with SPD is misdiagnosed with ADHD and only given medication or behaviour management ways often used for ADHD, their particular senses processing issues might not be handled correctly.

To beat these challenges, health specialists need to use comprehensive assessment tactics that combine numerous points of view and observations. Team efforts that involve different professionals like occupational therapists, psychologists, speech therapists, and educators are essential in precisely distinguishing between SPD and ADHD.

Differentiation Strategies and Observations

To aid differentiation, a comparative analysis can help. Consider the similarities and symptoms of both SPD and ADHD. Both can have attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity issues. But there are unique symptoms for each disorder.

Sensory processing difficulties can help tell them apart. Kids with SPD often have atypical reactions to sensory stimuli. Such as extreme sensitivity to certain sounds, textures, or smells. ADHD kids usually don’t have these sensitivities.

Professionals must be aware of mislabeling and inaccurate diagnosis. Overlapping symptoms make it hard to tell the difference. It’s important to assess each child’s profile for an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment responses can help differentiate. If a child does well with sensory processing therapy but not with attention-related behaviors, it may suggest SPD.

In summary, differentiate SPD and ADHD by looking at symptoms and unique characteristics. Utilize strategies such as observing sensory processing and assessing response to treatments. This way, proper care and treatment can be given to those with co-occurring conditions.

Treatment Approaches for SPD and ADHD

Different treatment approaches are available for Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this section, we will explore the various methods used to manage these conditions. From medication and behavioral management for ADHD to sensory processing therapy for SPD, and even a collaborative team approach for co-occurring SPD and ADHD, each sub-section will shed light on the distinct strategies employed in addressing these disorders.

Medication and Behavioral Management for ADHD

Medication and behavioral management are key for addressing ADHD. Meds, such as methylphenidate and Adderall, balance chemicals in the brain, improve focus, and reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity. On the other hand, behavioral management uses strategies to modify behavior and develop coping skills.

It is important to recognize that meds may not be suitable or preferred for everyone. Thus, healthcare professionals should consider each person’s specific circumstances when creating a tailored treatment plan. This plan should combine medication and behavioral management strategies with the individual’s preferences in mind to maximize outcomes.

Sensory Processing Therapy for SPD

A comprehensive assessment is conducted to identify sensory processing difficulties and find individualized treatment goals for those with Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD).

A personalized treatment plan is then created. This includes various activities and strategies to tackle integration challenges.

Therapy involves engaging with sensory activities to bring exposure to touch, movement, sounds, and visuals, helping SPD symptoms.

A therapist provides guidance and support to aid gradual adaptation to sensory experiences and develop effective coping strategies.

Progress is monitored through assessments, and the therapy approach can be changed if needed.

It is important to collaborate with other members of the care team to ensure a holistic approach is taken.

Each individual with SPD will need their own combination of techniques and interventions.

Consistency is essential for positive outcomes with sensory processing therapy for SPD. Regular practice outside of sessions is vital to reinforce skills and continue progress.

Collaborative Team Approach for Co-occurring SPD and ADHD

A multidisciplinary team is vital for addressing the coexistence of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Working together, healthcare professionals can efficiently manage and treat individuals with both conditions. This involves close collaboration between experts from various fields such as occupational therapy, psychology, and education. Combining their knowledge and skills, a proper evaluation can be done to diagnose and differentiate SPD and ADHD symptoms.

For proper care and treatment, various professionals must come together. Each brings unique expertise and views, which contribute to an extensive assessment and plan. For instance, occupational therapists can measure sensory processing worries associated with SPD, while psychologists can evaluate attention and impulsivity difficulties related to ADHD. By uniting their knowledge, a customized intervention can be crafted to target specific needs of each individual.

Involving parents/caregivers in decision-making is essential for successful treatment outcomes. They supply vital info about their child’s behavior and signs in different settings. This helps the collaborative team understand how the child acts at home, school, or other environments. By involving parents/caregivers, they become key partners in carrying out strategies at home or in other daily routines.

Historically, this collaborative approach has displayed encouraging results in improving outcomes for individuals with co-occurring SPD and ADHD. Studies have highlighted the advantages of a coordinated team effort in diagnosing and treating these conditions. This teamwork has resulted in more precise diagnosis due to reducing mislabeling of overlapping symptoms. Furthermore, it has led to more effective treatment plans tailored to address individual needs totally.

The devil is in the details, and understanding the differences between SPD and ADHD is essential.

Importance of Understanding the Differences

Understanding the differences between Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and ADHD is crucial in providing proper care and treatment. In this section, we will explore the importance of this understanding and delve into the essential aspects of ensuring proper care and treatment for individuals with SPD and ADHD. Additionally, we will discuss the recommendations that healthcare professionals can employ to better support those affected by these conditions.

Ensuring Proper Care and Treatment

Prescribing laughter as a side effect: Recommendations for healthcare pros dealing with Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  1. Identifying and diagnosing SPD and ADHD early is key for timely intervention. Observe behavior and sensory responses, and get assessments from trained professionals.
  2. Create personalized treatment plans. Include medication management, therapy, and interventions tailored to the individual’s needs.
  3. Collaborate with occupational therapists, speech therapists, psychologists, pediatricians, and educators for a holistic approach to care.
  4. Educate caregivers on strategies to manage challenging behaviors. Provide resources for ongoing support.
  5. Monitor progress regularly. Make adjustments to treatment plans based on changing needs over time. Communicate openly between healthcare professionals, caregivers, school personnel, and the individual.
  6. Raise awareness about SPD and ADHD in the community. Educate the public, employers, and policymakers.

By following these steps, healthcare pros can provide optimal care for individuals with these neurodevelopmental disorders.

Recommendations for Healthcare Professionals

Healthcare professionals are vital for the care and treatment of persons who have both Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). They must assess sensory processing, attention issues, and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. This allows them to create personalized plans. Educating and supporting parents/caregivers is also essential, as they must be informed about the differences between these two conditions. Interdisciplinary teamwork is also needed for comprehensive care.

Healthcare professionals should provide necessary interventions, such as sensory processing therapy for SPD and medication management/behavioral interventions for ADHD. They must remain aware of current research to ensure evidence-based care. By following these recommendations, healthcare professionals can guarantee that those with SPD/ADHD get the care they require.

Latest Data and Research Findings

The latest data and research findings reveal fascinating insights into the relationship between Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Comparative studies on sensory profile and diagnostic criteria shed light on the connections between SPD and ADHD, while a closer look at the link between speech and language disorders and sensory processing difficulties provides further understanding. These findings offer valuable perspective into the intricate nature of these conditions and their interplay.

Findings from Comparative Studies on Sensory Profile and Diagnostic Criteria

Comparative studies on sensory profile and diagnostic criteria give us valuable info on similarities and differences between Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These studies explore sensory processing issues in SPD and how to distinguish it from ADHD.

We can make a table to show key findings. The columns are “Study”, “Sensory Profile”, “Diagnostic Criteria”, and “Findings”.

Study Sensory Profile Diagnostic Criteria Findings

Also, these studies look at various diagnostic criteria used for identifying SPD and ADHD. Researchers study symptoms, behavior patterns, and neural correlations to get a better understanding of them. This is important for making accurate diagnoses, getting good intervention strategies, and improving outcomes for those with SPD or ADHD.

Healthcare professionals should use findings from comparative studies when assessing those with SPD or ADHD symptoms. This knowledge can help professionals accurately diagnose and create targeted treatment plans for individuals.

Link between Speech and Language Disorders and Sensory Processing Difficulties

Speech and language issues are closely linked to sensory processing troubles. Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) both have similar signs and can affect a child’s ability to communicate effectively. SPD is described by strange reactions to sensory stimuli, such as being too sensitive or not sensitive enough to certain feelings. ADHD, in contrast, leads to problems with focus, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.

The link between these disorders is seen in their effect on the development of speech and language. Kids with SPD often have trouble processing sound, which is key for speech and language growth. They may have difficulty understanding spoken language or focusing on relevant auditory cues. Furthermore, kids with SPD may show delays or trouble in speaking language skills, like forming sentences or finding the right words.

Kids with ADHD may also experience issues in speech and language growth. This is due to their limited attention span and impulsiveness, which can make it hard to take part in conversations or follow directions. This can lead to bad communication abilities, a small vocabulary, and difficulty organizing thoughts.

The relation between speech and language disorders and sensory processing difficulties shows the need for early detection and treatment for kids that may be in danger. Speech-language tests should think about the potential influence of SPD or ADHD on a child’s communication. Providing therapy that deals with both the sensory processing difficulties and the specific speech and language needs can help these children.

In conclusion, it is vital for healthcare workers working with kids who have communication issues to understand the link between speech and language disorders and sensory processing difficulties. By recognizing how these conditions work together, healthcare professionals can make better treatments that meet each person’s needs. More research in this area is necessary to better our knowledge of how these conditions interact and how to make effective intervention strategies.


In the concluding section, we’ll summarize the key findings of the comparative study on Sensory Processing Disorder and ADHD. We’ll also explore the implications these findings have for future research and treatment approaches, providing valuable insights for those involved in these fields.

Summary of Key Findings

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have similar symptoms, but are two distinct neurological conditions. Thus, a comparative study is needed to understand their unique characteristics and for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Key Findings:

  • SPD and ADHD have overlapping attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity difficulties.
  • Sensory processing therapy is recommended for SPD, targeting sensory integration deficits.
  • Speech and language disorders may be linked to sensory processing problems.
  • Comparative studies have revealed differences between SPD and ADHD.
  • Healthcare professionals must consider all information for an accurate diagnosis.

Therefore, healthcare professionals need to differentiate between SPD and ADHD to provide proper care and treatment. Unsuitable interventions or wrong medication management can occur if individuals are mislabeled. Comprehensive assessments and insights from comparative studies are necessary to create tailored intervention plans for individuals with SPD and ADHD, improving their quality of life.

Implications for Future Research and Treatment Approaches

Studies comparing SPD and ADHD have big implications for future research and treatment. We must understand the differences between them to ensure proper care. Misdiagnosis can lead to ineffective interventions.

Sensory processing therapy has shown promise in treating SPD. However, medication and behaviour management strategies are used to manage ADHD symptoms. A collaborative team approach with healthcare professionals from different fields is needed for comprehensive care.

Future research should focus on exploring the link between speech/language and sensory processing difficulties. This could show potential underlying mechanisms and inform more targeted interventions. Additionally, studies comparing the prevalence of SPD and ADHD in children could provide insights into potential risk factors and help with early identification strategies.

Some Facts About Sensory Processing Disorder and ADHD: A Comparative Study:

  • ✅ Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and ADHD share similar symptoms, leading to potential misdiagnosis. (Source: Team Research)
  • ✅ ADHD is more prevalent than SPD, with 11% of children in the US diagnosed with ADHD compared to 5-16% affected by SPD. (Source: Team Research)
  • ✅ A significant number of children with ADHD also have SPD, with around 40% having both disorders. (Source: Team Research)
  • ✅ The causes of ADHD are related to neurotransmitter problems and structural abnormalities in the brain, while SPD is associated with abnormal white matter structure in the posterior brain responsible for sensory integration. (Source: Team Research)
  • ✅ Treatment approaches differ for ADHD and SPD, with ADHD typically involving medication and behavioral management, while SPD treatment focuses on sensory processing therapy provided by occupational therapists. (Source: Team Research)

FAQs about Sensory Processing Disorder And Adhd: A Comparative Study

What is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and how is it related to ADHD?

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is a condition that affects how the brain processes and responds to sensory information from the body and the environment. It can cause difficulties in daily activities and behaviors. SPD and ADHD have similar symptoms, which can lead to mislabeling. Some children with ADHD may also have SPD, with 40% of children with ADHD also having SPD.

What are the causes of ADHD and SPD?

The causes of ADHD are linked to problems with neurotransmitters and structural abnormalities in the brain. On the other hand, SPD is associated with abnormal white matter structure in the posterior part of the brain responsible for sensory integration.

How are ADHD and SPD diagnosed and treated?

To differentiate between ADHD and SPD, observing the response to ADHD medication can indicate an ADHD diagnosis, while calming or focusing with sensory inputs suggests SPD. Treatment for ADHD involves medication and behavioral management, while SPD treatment focuses on sensory processing therapy provided by occupational therapists.

What is the role of sensory processing in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)?

Children with SLI, who have expressive or receptive language impairments, may also have poor sensory processing abilities. Previous research suggests a link between speech and language disorders and sensory processing difficulties, particularly in modulating sensory input and auditory processing.

How does sensory over-responsivity (SOR) relate to ADHD?

Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a subtype of sensory modulation disorder that describes atypical responses to sensory stimuli. Some studies have found that children with ADHD exhibit difficulties in sensory processing and regulating emotional responses to sensation. SOR might be an important dimension to consider in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.

What research studies have been conducted on sensory processing and ADHD?

Several research studies have explored the relationship between sensory processing and ADHD. These studies have examined behavioral patterns, neurophysiological markers, and the coexistence of sensory over-responsivity and anxiety in children with ADHD. The findings suggest that sensory processing difficulties might contribute to the symptom severity and risk identification in ADHD.

Recent Posts

Stay Know

Get exclusive deals you won’t find anywhere else straight to your inbox:

Scroll to Top